April 30, 2014 / 30 Nisan 5774
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- 305 – Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor.
- 524 – King Sigismund of Burgundy is executed at Orléans after an 8-year reign and is succeeded by his brother Godomar.
- 1576 – Stefan Batory, the reigning Prince of Transylvania, marries Anna Jagiellon and they become co-rulers of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
- 1707 – The Act of Union joins the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
- 1759 – Josiah Wedgwood founds the Wedgwood pottery company in Great Britain.
- 1776 – Establishment of the Illuminati in Ingolstadt (Upper Bavaria), by Jesuit-taught Adam Weishaupt.
- 1786 – In Vienna, Austria, Mozart's the opera The Marriage of Figaro is performed for the first time.
- 1840 – The Penny Black, the first official adhesive postage stamp, is issued in the United Kingdom.
- 1844 – Hong Kong Police Force, the world's second modern police force and Asia's first, is established.
- 1846 – The few remaining Mormons left in Nauvoo, Illinois, formally dedicate the Nauvoo Temple.
- 1851 – Queen Victoria opens the Great Exhibition in London.
- 1884 – Proclamation of the demand for eight-hour workday in the United States.
- 1884 – Moses Fleetwood Walker becomes the first black person to play in a professional baseball game in the United States.
- 1886 – Rallies are held throughout the United States demanding the eight-hour work day, culminating in the Haymarket Affair in Chicago, in commemoration of which May 1 is celebrated as International Workers' Day in many countries.
- 1894 – Coxey's Army, the first significant American protest march, arrives in Washington, D.C..
- 1898 – Spanish-American War: The Battle of Manila Bay: The United States Navy destroys the Spanish Pacific fleet in the first battle of the war.
- 1915 – The RMS Lusitania departs from New York City on her two hundred and second, and final, crossing of the North Atlantic. Six days later, the ship is torpedoed off the coast of Ireland with the loss of 1,198 lives, including 128 Americans, rousing American sentiment against Germany.
- 1927 – The first cooked meals on a scheduled flight are introduced on an Imperial Airways flight from London to Paris.
- 1930 – The dwarf planet Pluto is officially named.
- 1931 – The Empire State Building is dedicated in New York City.
- 1941 – World War II: German forces launch a major attack on Tobruk.
- 1945 – World War II: A German newsreader officially announces that Adolf Hitler has "fallen at his command post in the Reich Chancellery fighting to the last breath against Bolshevism and for Germany". The Soviet flag is raised over the Reich Chancellery, by order of Stalin.
- 1945 – World War II: Joseph Goebbels and his wife Magda commit suicide in the Reich Garden outside the Führerbunker. Their children are murdered by Magda by having cyanide pills inserted into their mouths.
- 1956 – The polio vaccine developed by Jonas Salk is made available to the public.
- 1960 – Cold War: U-2 incident: Francis Gary Powers, in a Lockheed U-2 spyplane, is shot down over the Soviet Union, sparking a diplomatic crisis.
- 1970 – Protests erupt in Seattle, Washington, following the announcement by U.S. President Richard Nixon that U.S. Forces in Vietnam would pursue enemy troops into Cambodia, a neutral country.
- 1977 – Thirty-six people are killed in Taksim Square, Istanbul, during the Labour Day celebrations.
- 1982 – Operation Black Buck: The Royal Air Force attacks the Argentine Air Force during Falklands War.
- 1983 – Greek composer Mikis Theodorakis is awarded the Lenin Peace Prize.
- 1987 – Pope John Paul II beatifies Edith Stein, a Jewish-born Carmelite nun who was gassed in the Nazi concentration camp at Auschwitz.
- 1994 – Three-time Formula One world champion Ayrton Senna is killed in an accident during the San Marino Grand Prix at Imola.
- 1999 – The body of British climber George Mallory is found on Mount Everest, 75 years after his disappearance in 1924.
- 2003 – 2003 invasion of Iraq: In what becomes known as the "Mission Accomplished" speech, on board the USS Abraham Lincoln (off the coast of California), U.S. President George W. Bush declares that "major combat operations in Iraq have ended".
- 2011 – Barack Obama announces that Osama bin Laden, the suspected mastermind behind the September 11 attacks has been killed by United States special forcesin Abbottabad, Pakistan. Due to the time difference between the United States and Pakistan, bin Laden was actually killed on May 2.
- 1218 – John I, Count of Hainaut (d. 1257)
- 1582 – Marco da Gagliano, Italian composer (d. 1643)
- 1769 – Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, Irish-English field marshal and politician, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1852)
- 1831 – Emily Stowe, Canadian physician and activist (d. 1903)
- 1852 – Calamity Jane, American scout (d. 1903)
- 1857 – Theo van Gogh, Dutch art dealer (d. 1891)
- 1864 – Anna Jarvis, American founder of Mother's Day (d. 1948)
- 1908 – Morris Kline, American mathematician and educator (d. 1992)
- 1913 – Walter Susskind, Czech-English conductor (d. 1980)
- 1923 – Joseph Heller, American author and playwright (d. 1999)
- 1925 – Scott Carpenter, American commander, pilot, and astronaut (d. 2013)
- 1939 – Judy Collins, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
- 1945 – Rita Coolidge, American singer
- 1946 – Joanna Lumley, Indian-English actress
- 1946 – John Woo, Hong Kong director, producer, and screenwriter
- 1950 – Marina Stepanova, Soviet hurdler
- 1951 – Gordon Greenidge, West Indies cricketer
- 1954 – Ray Parker, Jr., American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer (Raydio)
- 1967 – Tim McGraw, American singer-songwriter and actor
- 1997 – Ariel Gade, American actress