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April 23, 2014 / 23 Nisan 5774
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- 1479 BC – Thutmose III ascends to the throne of Egypt, although power effectively shifts to Hatshepsut (according to the Low Chronology of the 18th Dynasty).
- 1184 BC – Traditional date of the fall of Troy.
- 1558 – Mary, Queen of Scots, marries the Dauphin of France, François, at Notre Dame de Paris.
- 1704 – The first regular newspaper in British Colonial America, the News-Letter, is published in Boston, Massachusetts.
- 1800 – The United States Library of Congress is established when President John Adams signs legislation to appropriate $5,000 USD to purchase "such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress".
- 1877 – Russo-Turkish War: Russian Empire declares war on Ottoman Empire.
- 1885 – American sharpshooter Annie Oakley was hired by Nate Salsbury to be a part of Buffalo Bill's Wild West.
- 1904 – The Lithuanian press ban is lifted after almost 40 years.
- 1914 – The Franck–Hertz experiment, a pillar of quantum mechanics, is presented to the German Physical Society.
- 1915 – The arrest of 250 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders in Istanbul marks the beginning of the Armenian Genocide.
- 1916 – Easter Rising: The Irish Republican Brotherhood led by nationalists Patrick Pearse, James Connolly, and Joseph Plunkett starts a rebellion in Ireland.
- 1916 – Ernest Shackleton and five men of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition launch a lifeboat from uninhabited Elephant Island in the Southern Ocean to organise a rescue for the ice-trapped ship Endurance.
- 1918 – First tank-to-tank combat, at Villers-Bretonneux, France, when three British Mark IVs meet three German A7Vs.
- 1922 – The first segment of the Imperial Wireless Chain providing wireless telegraphy between Leafield in Oxfordshire, England, and Cairo, Egypt, comes into operation.
- 1923 – In Vienna, the paper Das Ich und das Es (The Ego and the Id) by Sigmund Freud is published, which outlines Freud's theories of the id, ego, and super-ego.
- 1926 – The Treaty of Berlin is signed. Germany and the Soviet Union each pledge neutrality in the event of an attack on the other by a third party for the next five years.
- 1932 – Benny Rothman leads the mass trespass of Kinder Scout, leading to substantial legal reforms in the United Kingdom.
- 1933 – Nazi Germany begins its persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses by shutting down the Watch Tower Society office in Magdeburg.
- 1953 – Winston Churchill is knighted by Queen Elizabeth II.
- 1955 – The Bandung Conference ends: Twenty-nine non-aligned nations of Asia and Africa finish a meeting that condemns colonialism, racism, and the Cold War.
- 1957 – The BBC first broadcast The Sky at Night presented by Patrick Moore
- 1967 – Cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov dies in Soyuz 1 when its parachute fails to open. He is the first human to die during a space mission.
- 1967 – Vietnam War: American General William Westmoreland says in a news conference that the enemy had "gained support in the United States that gives him hope that he can win politically that which he cannot win militarily."
- 1970 – The first Chinese satellite, Dong Fang Hong I, is launched.
- 1980 – Eight U.S. servicemen die in Operation Eagle Claw as they attempt to end the Iran hostage crisis.
- 1990 – STS-31: The Hubble Space Telescope is launched from the Space Shuttle Discovery.
- 1990 – Gruinard Island, Scotland, is officially declared free of the anthrax disease after 48 years of quarantine.
- 1993 – An IRA bomb devastates the Bishopsgate area of London.
- 2004 – The United States lifts economic sanctions imposed on Libya 18 years previously, as a reward for its cooperation in eliminating weapons of mass destruction.
- 2005 – Snuppy becomes world's first cloned dog.
- 702 – Ja'far al-Sadiq, Arabian Imam (d. 765)
- 1581 – Vincent de Paul, French priest and saint (d. 1660)
- 1620 – John Graunt, English statistician (d. 1674)
- 1706 – Giovanni Battista Martini, Italian pianist (d. 1780)
- 1743 – Edmund Cartwright, English clergyman, invented the power loom (d. 1823)
- 1815 – Anthony Trollope, English author (d. 1882)
- 1880 – Gideon Sundback, Swedish-American engineer and businessman, developed the zipper (d. 1954)
- 1906 – William Joyce, American-English politician and broadcaster (d. 1946)
- 1934 – Shirley MacLaine, American actress, singer, and dancer
- 1936 – Jill Ireland, English-American actress and author (d. 1990)
- 1942 – Barbra Streisand, American singer-songwriter, actress, and producer
- 1945 – Doug Clifford, American drummer and songwriter (Creedence Clearwater Revival, Creedence Clearwater Revisited, and Don Harrison Band)
- 1951 – Nigel Harrison, English bass player and songwriter (Blondie and Silverhead)
- 1957 – Boris Williams, French-English drummer (The Cure, Thompson Twins, and Babacar)
- 1959 – Paula Yates, English television host and author (d. 2000)
- 1973 – Sachin Ramesh Tendulkar, Indian cricketer
- 1982 – Kelly Clarkson, American singer-songwriter, producer, and actress
- 2005 – Snuppy, world's first cloned dog