January 27, 2014 / 26 Shevat 5774
International Holocaust Remembrance Day
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- 1077 – Walk to Canossa: The excommunication of Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor is lifted.
- 1393 – King Charles VI of France is nearly killed when several dancers' costumes catch fire during a masquerade ball.
- 1521 – The Diet of Worms begins, lasting until May 25.
- 1547 – Henry VIII dies. His nine-year-old son, Edward VI becomes King, and the first Protestant ruler of England.
- 1573 – Articles of the Warsaw Confederation are signed, sanctioning freedom of religion in Poland.
- 1724 – The Russian Academy of Sciences is founded in St. Petersburg by Peter the Great, and implemented by Senate decree. It is called the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences until 1917.
- 1754 – Horace Walpole coins the word serendipity in a letter to Horace Mann.
- 1813 – Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice is first published in the United Kingdom.
- 1820 – A Russian expedition led by Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev discovers the Antarctic continent, approaching the Antarctic coast.
- 1851 – Northwestern University becomes the first chartered university in Illinois.
- 1871 – Franco-Prussian War: the Siege of Paris ends in French defeat and an armistice.
- 1878 – Yale Daily News becomes the first daily college newspaper in the United States.
- 1887 – In a snowstorm at Fort Keogh, Montana, the world's largest snowflakes are reported, 15 inches (38 cm) wide and 8 inches (20 cm) thick.
- 1896 – Walter Arnold of East Peckham, Kent becomes the first person to be convicted of speeding. He was fined 1 shilling, plus costs, for speeding at 8 mph (13 km/h), thus exceeding the contemporary speed limit of 2 mph (3.2 km/h).
- 1902 – The Carnegie Institution of Washington is founded in Washington, D.C. with a $10 million gift from Andrew Carnegie.
- 1909 – United States troops leave Cuba with the exception of Guantanamo Bay Naval Base after being there since the Spanish–American War.
- 1932 – Japanese forces attack Shanghai.
- 1933 – The name Pakistan is coined by Choudhry Rahmat Ali Khan and is accepted by the Indian Muslims who then thereby adopted it further for the Pakistan Movement seeking independence.
- 1935 – Iceland becomes the first Western country to legalize therapeutic abortion.
- 1938 – The World Land Speed Record on a public road is broken by Rudolf Caracciola in the Mercedes-Benz W195 at a speed of 432.7 kilometres per hour (268.9 mph).
- 1956 – Elvis Presley makes his first US television appearance
- 1958 – The Lego company patents the design of its Lego bricks, still compatible with bricks produced today.
- 1958 – The last episode of the British radio comedy programme The Goon Show is broadcast.
- 1981 – Ronald Reagan lifts remaining domestic petroleum price and allocation controls in the United States helping to end the 1979 energy crisis and begin the 1980s oil glut.
- 1986 – Space Shuttle program: STS-51-L mission – Space Shuttle Challenger explodes after liftoff killing all seven astronauts on board.
- 1988 – In R. v. Morgentaler the Supreme Court of Canada strikes down all anti-abortion laws, effectively allowing abortions in Canada in all 9 months of pregnancy.
- 1312 – Joan II of Navarre (d. 1349)
- 1706 – John Baskerville, English printer and typographer (d. 1775)
- 1755 – Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring, German physician (d. 1830)
- 1833 – Charles George Gordon, English general and administrator (d. 1885)
- 1857 – William Seward Burroughs I, American inventor and businessman, founded the Burroughs Corporation (d. 1898)
- 1863 – Ernest William Christmas, Australian painter (d. 1918)
- 1864 – Charles Williams Nash, American businessman, founded Nash Motors (d. 1948)
- 1864 – Herbert Akroyd Stuart, English inventor, invented the Hot bulb engine and Hornsby-Akroyd oil engine (d. 1927)
- 1887 – Arthur Rubinstein, Polish-American pianist (d. 1982)
- 1903 – Aleksander Kamiński, Polish author and educator (d. 1978)
- 1927 – Vera B. Williams, American children's author
- 1936 – Alan Alda, American actor, screenwriter, and director
- 1954 – Rick Warren, American pastor and author
- 1998 – Ariel Winter, American actress
- 592 – Guntram, French king (b. 532)
- 814 – Charlemagne, Roman emperor (b. 742)
- 1939 – W. B. Yeats, Irish poet, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1865)
- 1986 – crew of Space Shuttle Challenger
- – Gregory Jarvis, American captain, engineer, and astronaut (b. 1944)
- – Christa McAuliffe, American educator and astronaut (b. 1948)
- – Ronald McNair, American physicist and astronaut (b. 1950)
- – Ellison Onizuka, American engineer and astronaut (b. 1946)
- – Judith Resnik, American engineer and astronaut (b. 1949)
- – Dick Scobee, American pilot and astronaut (b. 1939)
- – Michael J. Smith, American pilot and astronaut (b. 1945)