January 21, 2014 / 20 Shevat 5774
The Supersized Edition
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- 565 – Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus.
- 613 – Constantine (8-month-old) is crowned as co-emperor (Caesar) by his father Heraclius at Constantinople.
- 1506 – The first contingent of 150 Swiss Guards arrives at the Vatican.
- 1689 – The Convention Parliament convenes to determine if James II and VII, the last Roman Catholic monarch of England, Ireland and Scotland, had vacated the thrones when he fled to France in 1688.
- 1824 – The Ashantis defeat British forces in the Gold Coast.
- 1863 – The January Uprising breaks out in Poland, Lithuania and Belarus. The aim of the national movement is to regain Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian Commonwealth from occupation by Russia.
- 1877 – Arthur Tooth, an Anglican clergyman is taken into custody after being prosecuted for using ritualist practices.
- 1879 – Anglo-Zulu War: Battle of Isandlwana – Zulu troops defeat British troops.
- 1879 – Anglo-Zulu War: Battle of Rorke's Drift – 139 British soldiers successfully defend their garrison against an onslaught by three to four thousandZulu warriors.
- 1889 – Columbia Phonograph is formed in Washington, D.C.
- 1899 – Leaders of six Australian colonies meet in Melbourne to discuss confederation.
- 1917 – World War I: President Woodrow Wilson of the still-neutral United States calls for "peace without victory" in Europe.
- 1941 – World War II: British and Commonwealth troops capture Tobruk from Italian forces during Operation Compass.
- 1947 – KTLA, the first commercial television station west of the Mississippi River, begins operation in Hollywood, California.
- 1968 – Operation Igloo White, a US electronic surveillance system to stop communist infiltration into South Vietnam begins installation.
- 1973 – The Supreme Court of the United States delivers its decision in Roe v. Wade, legalizing elective abortion in all fifty states.
- 1984 – The Apple Macintosh, the first consumer computer to popularize the computer mouse and the graphical user interface, is introduced during Super Bowl XVIII with its famous"1984" television commercial.
- 1987 – Pennsylvania politician R. Budd Dwyer shoots and kills himself during a televised press conference, leading to debates on boundaries in journalism.
- 1995 – Israeli-Palestinian conflict: Beit Lid massacre – In central Israel, near Netanya, two suicide bombers from the Gaza Strip blow themselves up at a military transit point killing 19 Israelis.
- 1263 – Ibn Taymiyyah, Turkish scholar and theologian (d. 1328)
- 1552 – Sir Walter Raleigh, English aristocrat, writer, poet, soldier, courtier, spy and explorer (d. 1618)
- 1561 – Francis Bacon, English philosopher (d. 1626)
- 1592 – Pierre Gassendi, French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist (d. 1655)
- 1729 – Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, German author and philosopher (d. 1781)
- 1788 – Lord Byron, English poet (d. 1824)
- 1840 – Ernest Roland Wilberforce, English bishop (d. 1907)
- 1869 – Grigori Rasputin, Russian monk (d. 1916)
- 1875 – D. W. Griffith, American director (d. 1948)
- 1897 – Blind Willie Johnson, American blues and gospel musician (d. 1945)
- 1906 – Robert E. Howard, American author (d. 1936)
- 1924 – J. J. Johnson, American trombonist and composer (d. 2001)
- 1931 – Sam Cooke, American singer-songwriter (The Soul Stirrers and The Highway Q.C.'s) (d. 1964)
- 1945 – Arthur Beetson, Australian rugby league footballer and coach (d. 2011)
- 1993 – Tommy Knight, English actor