January 3, 2014 / 2 Shevat 5774 / Shabbat Shalom!
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- 1757 – Louis XV of France survived an assassination attempt by Robert-François Damiens, who later became the last person to be executed in the country by drawing and quartering.
- 1919 – The German Workers' Party, the forerunner to the Nazi Party, was founded by Anton Drexler.
- 1941 – Second World War: Australian and British troops defeatedItalian forces in Bardia, Libya, the first battle of the war in which anAustralian Army formation took part.
- 1991 – Georgian troops attacked Tskhinvali, the capital of South Ossetia, opening the 1991–92 South Ossetia War.
- 2005 – Eris (pictured), the largest known dwarf planet in the Solar System, was discovered by a team led by Michael E. Brown using images originally taken on October 21, 2003, at the Palomar Observatory in San Diego County, California.
- 1209 – Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall, German king (d. 1272)
- 1762 – Constanze Mozart, German wife of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (d. 1842)
- 1855 – King C. Gillette, American businessman, founded the Gillette Company (d. 1932)
- 1895 – Jeannette Piccard, American priest, and scientist (d. 1981)
- 1914 – George Reeves, American actor (d. 1959)
- 1929 – Russ Manning, American comic book and comic strip artist, created Magnus, Robot Fighter (d. 1981)
- 1932 – Umberto Eco, Italian philosopher and author
- 1932 – Raisa Gorbachova, Russian wife of Mikhail Gorbachev, First Lady of the Soviet Union (d. 1999)
- 1933 – Leonard Marsh, American businessman, co-founded Snapple (d. 2013)
- 1940 – Athol Guy, Australian bassist (The Seekers)
- 1961 – Iris DeMent, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
- 2000 – Patricia Gayod, Filipino actress
- 1066 – Edward the Confessor dies childless, sparking a succession crisis that will eventually lead to the Norman conquest of England.
- 1477 – Battle of Nancy: Charles the Bold is killed and Burgundy becomes part of France.
- 1500 – Duke Ludovico Sforza conquers Milan.
- 1527 – Felix Manz, a leader of the Anabaptist congregation in Zurich, Switzerland, is executed by drowning.
- 1757 – Louis XV of France survives an assassination attempt by Robert-François Damiens, the last person to be executed in France bydrawing and quartering, the traditional and gruesome form of capital punishment used for regicides.
- 1781 – American Revolutionary War: Richmond, Virginia, is burned by British naval forces led by Benedict Arnold.
- 1854 – The San Francisco steamer sinks, killing 300 people.
- 1895 – Dreyfus affair: French army officer Alfred Dreyfus is stripped of his rank and sentenced to life imprisonment on Devil's Island.
- 1896 – An Austrian newspaper reports that Wilhelm Röntgen has discovered a type of radiation later known as X-rays.
- 1914 – The Ford Motor Company announces an eight-hour workday and a minimum wage of $5 for a day's labor.
- 1919 – The German Workers' Party, which would become the Nazi Party, is founded.
- 1940 – FM radio is demonstrated to the Federal Communications Commission for the first time.
- 1949 – United States President Harry S. Truman unveils his Fair Deal program.
- 1957 – In a speech given to the United States Congress, United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower announces the establishment of what will later be called theEisenhower Doctrine.
- 1968 – Alexander Dubček comes to power: "Prague Spring" begins in Czechoslovakia.
- 1972 – United States President Richard Nixon orders the development of a Space Shuttle program.
- 1976 – The Troubles: In response to the killing of six Catholics the night before, gunmen shoot dead ten Protestant civilians after stopping their minibus at Kingsmill inCounty Armagh, Northern Ireland, UK.
- 842 – Al-Mu'tasim, Iraqi 8th Abbasid caliph (b. 794)
- 1589 – Catherine de' Medici, Italian-French wife of Henry II of France (b. 1519)
- 1941 – Amy Johnson, English aviator (b. 1903)