FRIDAY, JANUARY 25, 2013
Happy Birthday, Ava Gardner 1922-1990
Seen here in " The Killers" 1946
- 1547 – Nine-year-old Edward VI became the first Protestant ruler of England, during whose reign Protestantism was established for the first time in the country with reforms that included the abolition of clerical celibacy and the mass.
- 1821 – Alexander Island, the largest island of Antarctica, was discovered by Russian explorer Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen.
- 1922 – Snowfall from the biggest recorded snowstorm inWashington, D.C. history caused the roof of theKnickerbocker Theatre to collapse, killing 98 people.
- 1933 – Choudhry Rahmat Ali (pictured) published a pamphlet entitled "Now or Never" in which he called for the creation of a Muslim state in northwest India that he termed "Pakstan".
- 1982 – After having been kidnapped by the Italian Red Brigade 42 days earlier, General James L. Dozier of theUnited States Army was freed by the anti-terrorist forceNOCS.
- 98 – Trajan succeeded his adoptive father Nerva as Roman emperor; under his rule the Roman Empire would reach its maximum extent.
- 1077 – Walk to Canossa: The excommunication of Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor is lifted.
- 1393 – King Charles VI of France is nearly killed when several dancers' costumes catch fire during a masquerade ball.
- 1521 – The Diet of Worms begins, lasting until May 25.
- 1547 – Henry VIII dies. His nine year old son, Edward VI becomes King, and the first Protestant ruler of England.
- 1573 – Articles of the Warsaw Confederation are signed, sanctioning freedom of religion in Poland.
- 1624 – Sir Thomas Warner founds the first British colony in the Caribbean, on the island of Saint Kitts.
- 1701 – The Chinese storm Dartsedo.
- 1724 – The Russian Academy of Sciences is founded in St. Petersburg by Peter the Great, and implemented by Senate decree. It is called the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences until 1917.
- 1754 – Horace Walpole coins the word serendipity in a letter to Horace Mann.
- 1760 – Pownal, Vermont is created by Benning Wentworth as one of the New Hampshire Grants.
- 1813 – Pride and Prejudice is first published in the United Kingdom.
- 1820 – A Russian expedition led by Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev discovers the Antarctic continent approaching the Antarctic coast.
- 1821 – Alexander Island is first discovered by Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen.
- 1846 – The Battle of Aliwal, India, is won by British troops commanded by Sir Harry Smith.
- 1851 – Northwestern University becomes the first chartered university in Illinois.
- 1855 – A locomotive, on the Panama Railway, runs from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean for the first time.
- 1871 – Franco-Prussian War: the Siege of Paris ends in French defeat and an armistice.
- 1878 – Yale Daily News becomes the first daily college newspaper in the United States.
- 1887 – In a snowstorm at Fort Keogh, Montana, the world's largest snowflakes are reported, 15 inches (38 cm) wide and 8 inches (20 cm) thick.
- 1896 – Walter Arnold of East Peckham, Kent became the first person to be convicted of speeding. He was fined 1 shilling, plus costs, for speeding at 8 mph (13 km/h), thus exceeding the contemporary speed limit of 2 mph (3.2 km/h).
- 1902 – The Carnegie Institution of Washington is founded in Washington, D.C. with a $10 million gift from Andrew Carnegie.
- 1908 – Members of the Portuguese Republican Party fail in their attempted coup d'état against the administrative dictatorship of Prime Minister João Franco.
- 1909 – United States troops leave Cuba with the exception of Guantanamo Bay Naval Base after being there since the Spanish-American War.
- 1915 – An act of the U.S. Congress creates the United States Coast Guard.
- 1917 – Municipally owned streetcars take to the streets of San Francisco, California.
- 1918 – Finnish Civil War: Rebels seized control of the capital, Helsinki, and members of the Senate of Finland go underground.
- 1922 – Knickerbocker Storm, Washington D.C.'s biggest snowfall, causes the city's greatest loss of life when the roof of the Knickerbocker Theatrecollapses.
- 1932 – Japanese forces attack Shanghai.
- 1933 – The name Pakistan is coined by Choudhary Rehmat Ali Khan and is accepted by the Indian Muslims who then thereby adopted it further for the Pakistan Movement seeking independence.
- 1934 – The first ski tow in the United States begins operation in Vermont.
- 1935 – Iceland becomes the first Western country to legalize therapeutic abortion.
- 1938 – The World Land Speed Record on a public road is broken by driver Rudolf Caracciola in the Mercedes-Benz W195 at a speed of 432.7 kilometres per hour (268.9 mph).
- 1941 – French-Thai War: Final air battle of the conflict. Japanese-mediated armistice goes into effect later in the day.
- 1945 – World War II: Supplies begin to reach the Republic of China over the newly reopened Burma Road.
- 1956 – Elvis Presley made his first US TV appearance
- 1958 – The Lego company patents the design of its Lego bricks, still compatible with bricks produced today.
- 1958 – The last episode of the British radio comedy programme Goon Show was broadcast.
- 1964 – An unarmed USAF T-39 Sabreliner on a training mission is shot down over Erfurt, East Germany, by a Soviet MiG-19.
- 1965 – The current design of the Flag of Canada is chosen by an act of Parliament.
- 1977 – The first day of the Great Lakes Blizzard of 1977, that dumped 10 feet (3.0 m) of snow in one-day in Upstate New York, with Buffalo,Syracuse, Watertown, and surrounding areas most affected.
- 1980 – USCGC Blackthorn collides with the tanker Capricorn while leaving Tampa Florida and capsizes killing 23 Coast Guard crewmembers.
- 1981 – Ronald Reagan lifts remaining domestic petroleum price and allocation controls in the United States helping to end the 1979 energy crisis and begin the 1980s oil glut.
- 1982 – US Army general James L. Dozier is rescued by Italian anti-terrorism forces from captivity by the Red Brigades.
- 1984 – Tropical Storm Domoina makes landfall in southern Mozambique, eventually causing 214 deaths and some of the most severe flooding so far recorded in the region.
- 1985 – Supergroup USA for Africa (United Support of Artists for Africa) records the hit single We Are the World, to help raise funds for Ethiopian famine relief.
- 1986 – Space Shuttle program: STS-51-L mission – Space Shuttle Challenger breaks apart after liftoff killing all seven astronauts on board.
- 1988 – The Surpreme Court of Canada struck down all abortion laws which mean abortions were allowed in Canada in all 9 months of pregnancy.
- 2002 – TAME Flight 120, a Boeing 727-100 crashes in the Andes mountains in southern Colombia killing 92.
- 2006 – The roof of one of the buildings at the Katowice International Fair in Chorzów / Katowice, Poland, collapses due to the weight of snow, killing 65 and injuring more than 170 others.
- 2010 – Five murderers of President Sheikh Mujibur Rahman of Bangladesh: Lieutenant Colonel Syed Faruq Rahman, Lieutenant Colonel Sultan Shahriar Rashid Khan, Major AKM Mohiuddin Ahmed, Major Bazlul Huda and Lieutenant Colonel Mohiuddin Ahmed are hanged.
- 2011 – Hundreds of thousands of protesters filled up the Egyptian's streets in demonstrations referred to as "Friday of Anger" against the Mubarakregime.
- 1225 – Saint Thomas Aquinas (d. 1274)
- 1312 – Queen Joan II of Navarre (d. 1349)
- 1457 – King Henry VII of England (d. 1509)
- 1540 – Ludolph van Ceulen, German mathematician (d. 1610)
- 1578 – Cornelius Haga, the first ambassador of the Dutch Republic to the Ottoman Empire (d. 1654)
- 1582 – John Barclay, Scottish writer (d. 1621)
- 1600 – Pope Clement IX (d. 1669)
- 1608 – Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, Italian physiologist and physicist (d. 1679)
- 1611 – Johannes Hevelius, Polish-born astronomer (d. 1687)
- 1622 – Adrien Auzout, French astronomer (d. 1691)
- 1693 – Gregor Werner, Austrian composer (d. 1766)
- 1701 – Charles Marie de La Condamine, French mathematician and geographer (d. 1774)
- 1706 – John Baskerville, English printer (d. 1775)
- 1712 – Tokugawa Ieshige, Japanese shogun (d. 1761)
- 1717 – Mustafa III, Ottoman sultan (d. 1774)
- 1719 – Johann Elias Schlegel, German critic and poet (d. 1749)
- 1755 – Samuel Thomas von Sömmering, German physician (d. 1830)
- 1784 – George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen, Prime Minister of the UK (d. 1860)
- 1818 – George S. Boutwell, American politician, 20th Governor of Massachusetts and later the 28th United States Secretary of the Treasury (d. 1905)
- 1822 – Alexander Mackenzie, 2nd Prime Minister of Canada (d. 1892)
- 1833 – Charles George 'Chinese' Gordon, British soldier and administrator (d. 1885)
- 1841 – Henry Morton Stanley, Welsh-born explorer and journalist (d. 1904)
- 1853 – José Martí, Cuban revolutionary (d. 1895)
- 1853 – Vladimir Solovyov, Russian philosopher (d. 1900)
- 1857 – William Seward Burroughs I, American inventor (d. 1898)
- 1858 – Tannatt William Edgeworth David, KBE, DSO, FRS, Welsh-born Australian geologist and Antarctic explorer (d. 1934)
- 1861 – Julián Felipe, Filipino musician (d. 1944)
- 1863 – Ernest William Christmas, Australian painter (d. 1918)
- 1864 – Charles W. Nash, American automobile entrepreneur (d. 1948)
- 1864 – Herbert Akroyd Stuart, English inventor (d. 1927)
- 1865 – Lala Lajpat Rai, Indian freedom fighter (d. 1928)
- 1865 – Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg, 1st President of Finland (d. 1952)
- 1873 – Colette, French writer (d. 1954)
- 1874 – Vsevolod Meyerhold, Russian theatre director (d. 1940)
- 1880 – Herbert Strudwick, English cricketer (d. 1970)
- 1884 – Auguste Piccard, Swiss physicist (d. 1962)
- 1885 – Vahan Terian, Armenian poet, lyricist and public activist (d. 1920)
- 1886 – Marthe Bibesco, Romanian writer (d. 1973)
- 1886 – Hidetsugu Yagi, Japanese electrical engineer (d. 1976)
- 1887 – Arthur Rubinstein, Polish pianist (d. 1982)
- 1890 – Robert Stroud, American convict, the Birdman of Alcatraz (d. 1963)
- 1891 – Bill Doak, American baseball player (d. 1954)
- 1892 – Ernst Lubitsch, German-born film director (d. 1947)
- 1897 – Valentin Kataev, Russian writer (d. 1986)
- 1899 – Elias Simojoki, Finnish clergyman and politician (d. 1940)
- 1900 – Alice Neel, American artist (d. 1984)
- 1903 – Aleksander Kamiński, Polish writer (d. 1978)
- 1904 – Canuplin, Filipino magician and bodabil entertainer (d. 1979)
- 1908 – Paul Misraki, French composer and songwriter (d. 1998)
- 1909 – John Thomson, Scottish footballer (d. 1931)
- 1910 – John Banner, Austrian actor (d. 1973)
- 1910 – Arnold Moss, American actor (d. 1989)
- 1911 – Johan van Hulst, Dutch politician
- 1912 – Jackson Pollock, American painter (d. 1956)
- 1913 – Maurice Gosfield, American actor (d. 1964)
- 1915 – Nien Cheng, Chinese-born American writer (d. 2009)
- 1918 – Harry Corbett, English puppeteer (Sooty) (d. 1989)
- 1918 – Trevor Skeet, New Zealand-born British politician (d. 2004)
- 1919 – Francis Gabreski, American fighter pilot (d. 2002)
- 1922 – Robert W. Holley, American biochemist, Nobel laureate (d. 1993)
- 1924 – Marcel Broodthaers, Belgian painter (d. 1976)
- 1925 – Scotty Bloch, American stage and television actress
- 1927 – Per Oscarsson, Swedish actor (d. 2010)
- 1927 – Ronnie Scott, British tenor saxophonist and club owner (d. 1996)
- 1927 – Hiroshi Teshigahara, Japanese director (d. 2001)
- 1929 – Acker Bilk, English clarinetist
- 1929 – Nikolai Parshin, Russian footballer and manager (d. 2012)
- 1929 – Claes Oldenburg, Swedish-born artist
- 1930 – Jasraj, Indian classical singer
- 1930 – Kurt Biedenkopf, German politician
- 1933 – Jack Hill, American film director
- 1934 – Juan Manuel Bordeu, Argentine racing driver (d. 1990)
- 1934 – Mitr Chaibancha, Thai actor (d. 1970)
- 1935 – David Lodge, English author
- 1936 – Alan Alda, American actor, screenwriter, and director
- 1936 – Ismail Kadare, Albanian writer
- 1937 – Karel Čáslavský, Czech historian and television host (d. 2013)
- 1938 – Leonid Zhabotynsky, Ukrainian weightlifter
- 1939 – John M. Fabian, NASA astronaut
- 1940 – Carlos Slim, Mexican businessman
- 1941 – Joel Crothers, American actor (d. 1985)
- 1941 – Osbourne 'King Tubby' Ruddock, Jamaican musician and sound engineer (d. 1989)
- 1942 – Sjoukje Dijkstra, Dutch figure skater
- 1943 – John Beck, American actor
- 1943 – Paul Henderson, Canadian ice hockey player
- 1943 – Dick Taylor, English musician (The Rolling Stones and The Pretty Things)
- 1944 – Susan Howard, American actress
- 1944 – John Tavener, English composer
- 1945 – Karen Lynn Gorney, American actress
- 1945 – Marthe Keller, Swiss actress
- 1945 – José Luis Perales, Spanish singer-songwriter
- 1945 – John Perkins, American author and activist
- 1945 – Robert Wyatt, English musician (Soft Machine)
- 1947 – Jeanne Shaheen, American politician, senior senator of New Hampshire
- 1948 – Charles Taylor, 22nd President of Liberia
- 1949 – Thomas Downey, American politician
- 1949 – Gregg Popovich, American basketball coach
- 1950 – Barbi Benton, American actress
- 1950 – David C. Hilmers, NASA astronaut
- 1950 – Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifah, King of Bahrain
- 1950 – Bob Hay, American songwriter and musician (Supercluster)
- 1951 – Brian Bilbray, American politician
- 1951 – Leonid Kadeniuk, Ukrainian cosmonaut
- 1953 – Colin Campbell, Canadian ice hockey player and executive
- 1953 – Chris Carter, English musician (Throbbing Gristle, Chris & Cosey)
- 1954 – Rick Warren, American pastor and author
- 1955 – Nicolas Sarkozy, President of France
- 1957 – Mark Napier, Canadian ice hockey player
- 1957 – Frank Skinner, British comedian
- 1957 – Nick Price, Zimbabwean golfer
- 1959 – Burkhard Dallwitz, German-born composer
- 1959 – Frank Darabont, American filmmaker
- 1959 – Megan McDonald, American children's literature author
- 1959 – Randi Rhodes, radio personality
- 1959 – Dave Sharp, Welsh guitarist (The Alarm)
- 1960 – Robert von Dassanowsky, American historian, writer, and producer
- 1961 – Arnaldur Indridason, Icelandic writer
- 1961 – Normand Rochefort, Canadian ice hockey player
- 1962 – Keith Hamilton Cobb, American actor
- 1962 – Creflo Dollar, American televangelist
- 1962 – Sam Phillips, American singer
- 1963 – Dan Spitz, American musician, guitarist (Anthrax)
- 1965 – Lynda Boyd, Canadian actress
- 1967 – Jan Lamb, Chinese disc jockey & comedian
- 1968 – Sarah McLachlan, Canadian singer and songwriter
- 1968 – DJ Muggs, American musician (Cypress Hill)
- 1968 – Rakim (William Michael Griffin Jr.), American rapper (Eric B. & Rakim)
- 1969 – Kathryn Morris, American actress
- 1969 – Mo Rocca, American writer and comedian
- 1969 – Linda Sanchez, American politician
- 1971 – Anthony Hamilton, American soul singer
- 1972 – Léon van Bon, Dutch road racing cyclist
- 1972 – Nicky Southall, English footballer
- 1974 – Tony Delk, American basketball player
- 1974 – Jermaine Dye, American baseball player
- 1974 – Ramsey Nasr, Dutch author and poet
- 1974 – Magglio Ordóñez, Venezuelan baseball player
- 1975 – Terri Colombino, American actress
- 1975 – Tanya Chua, Singaporean singer
- 1975 – Lee Latchford-Evans, English singer (Steps)
- 1975 – Anne Montminy, Canadian diver
- 1975 – Junior Spivey, American baseball player
- 1976 – Lee Ingleby, British actor
- 1976 – Emiko Kado, Japanese wrestler (d. 1999)
- 1976 – Mark Madsen, American basketball player
- 1976 – Jarrod Montague, American drummer (Taproot)
- 1976 – Rick Ross, American rapper
- 1976 – Miltiadis Sapanis, Greek footballer
- 1977 – Daunte Culpepper, American football player
- 1977 – Matt DeVries, American guitarist (Chimaira, Ringworm, Six Feet Under, and Fear Factory)
- 1977 – Joey Fatone, American singer (*NSYNC)
- 1977 – Lyle Overbay, American baseball player
- 1977 – Takuma Sato, Japanese racing driver
- 1978 – Sheamus, Irish wrestler and actor
- 1978 – Gianluigi Buffon, Italian footballer
- 1978 – Jamie Carragher, English footballer
- 1978 – Papa Bouba Diop, Senegalese footballer
- 1979 – Ali Boulala, Swedish skateboarder
- 1980 – Nick Carter, American singer (Backstreet Boys)
- 1980 – Yasuhito Endō, Japanese footballer
- 1980 – Jesse James Hollywood, American drug dealer and fugitive
- 1981 – Elijah Wood, American actor
- 1984 – Stephen Gostkowski, American football player
- 1984 – Andre Iguodala, American basketball player
- 1985 – Daniel Carcillo, Canadian hockey player
- 1985 – J. Cole, American rapper
- 1985 – Arnold Mvuemba, French footballer
- 1985 – Libby Trickett, Australian swimmer
- 1986 – Jessica Ennis, British athlete
- 1986 – Shruti Haasan, Indian actress
- 1986 – Nathan Outteridge, Australian sailor
- 1986 – Antonis Petropoulos, Greek footballer
- 1986 – Asad Shafiq, Pakistani Cricketer
- 1987 – Chelsea Brummet, American actress
- 1988 – Paul Henry, English footballer
- 1989 – Siem de Jong, Dutch footballer
- 1989 – Ronny Philp, German footballer
- 1990 – Kalifa Fai-Fai Loa, New Zealand rugby league footballer
- 1990 – Alexandra Krosney, American actress
- 1991 – Carl Klingberg, Swedish ice hockey player
- 1991 – Calum Worthy, Canadian actor
- 1992 – Andrei Savchenko, Russian footballer
- 1992 – Sergio Araujo, Argentine footballer
- 1993 – Will Poulter, English actor
- 1993 – Richmond Boakye, Ghanaian footballer
- 1998 – Ariel Winter, American actress
- 814 – Charlemagne (b. 742)
- 1061 – Duke Spytihněv II of Bohemia (b. 1031)
- 1271 – Isabella of Aragon, queen of Philip III of France (b. 1247)
- 1443 – Robert le Maçon, Chancellor of France
- 1547 – King Henry VIII of England (b. 1491)
- 1613 – Thomas Bodley, English diplomat and library founder (b. 1545)
- 1621 – Pope Paul V (b. 1550)
- 1672 – Pierre Séguier, Chancellor of France (b. 1588)
- 1681 – Richard Allestree, English royalist churchman (b. 1619)
- 1687 – Johannes Hevelius, Polish astronomer (b. 1611)
- 1697 – John Fenwick, English conspirator
- 1754 – Ludvig Holberg, Norwegian historian and writer (b. 1684)
- 1832 – Augustin Daniel Belliard, French general (b. 1769)
- 1859 – Frederick John Robinson, 1st Viscount Goderich, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1782)
- 1864 – Émile Clapeyron, French engineer and physicist (b. 1799)
- 1903 – Augusta Holmès, French composer (b. 1847)
- 1912 – Gustave de Molinari, Belgian economist (b. 1819)
- 1915 – Nikolay Umov, Russian physicist (b. 1846)
- 1918 – John McCrae, Canadian poet (b. 1872)
- 1930 – Ema Destinnová, Czech opera singer (b. 1878)
- 1935 – Mikhail Ippolitov-Ivanov, Russian composer (b. 1859)
- 1937 – Anastasios Metaxas, Greek architect and shooter (b. 1862)
- 1938 – Bernd Rosemeyer, German racecar driver (b. 1909)
- 1939 – William Butler Yeats, Irish writer, Nobel Prize Laureate (b. 1865)
- 1942 – Edward Siegler, American gymnast (b. 1881)
- 1947 – Reynaldo Hahn, French composer (b. 1875)
- 1948 – Hans Aumeier, German Nazi official and concentration camp commandant (b. 1906)
- 1948 – Therese Brandl, Nazi concentration camp guard (b. 1902)
- 1948 – Arthur Liebehenschel, Commandant at Auschwitz concentration camp (b. 1901)
- 1949 – Jean-Pierre Wimille, French race car driver (b. 1908)
- 1950 – Nikolai Luzin, Russian mathematician (b. 1883)
- 1953 – Derek Bentley, British criminal (b. 1933)
- 1953 – James Scullin, 9th Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1876)
- 1959 – Walter Beall, American baseball player (b. 1899)
- 1960 – Zora Neale Hurston, American author (b. 1891)
- 1963 – Gustave Garrigou, French cyclist (b. 1884)
- 1965 – Tich Freeman, English cricketer (b. 1888)
- 1965 – Maxime Weygand, French soldier (b. 1867)
- 1967 – Ruut Tarmo, Estonian actor (b. 1896)
- 1971 – Donald Winnicott, British psychoanalyst (b. 1896)
- 1973 – John Banner, Austrian actor (b. 1910)
- 1975 – Ola Raknes, Norwegian psychoanalyst and philologist (b. 1887)
- 1976 – Marcel Broodthaers, Belgian painter (b. 1924)
- 1978 – Ward Moore, American author (b. 1903)
- 1979 – Eileen Shanahan, Irish poet (b. 1901)
- 1983 – Frank Forde, 15th Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1890)
- 1983 – Billy Fury, British singer (b. 1940)
- 1986 – Gregory Jarvis – crew of Space Shuttle Challenger (b. 1944)
- 1986 – Christa McAuliffe – American teacher, member of the crew of Space Shuttle Challenger (b. 1948)
- 1986 – Ronald McNair – crew of Space Shuttle Challenger (b. 1950)
- 1986 – Ellison Onizuka – crew of Space Shuttle Challenger (b. 1946)
- 1986 – Judith Resnik – crew of Space Shuttle Challenger (b. 1949)
- 1986 – Francis Richard "Dick" Scobee – commander of Space Shuttle Challenger (b. 1939)
- 1986 – Michael J. Smith – crew of Space Shuttle Challenger (b. 1945)
- 1988 – Klaus Fuchs, German physicist (b. 1911)
- 1989 – Choekyi Gyaltsen, 10th Panchen Lama, Tibetan religious figure (b. 1938)
- 1990 – Puma Jones, American singer (Black Uhuru) (b. 1953)
- 1994 – Hal Smith, American actor (b. 1916)
- 1996 – Joseph Brodsky, Russian-born poet, Nobel Laureate (b. 1940)
- 1996 – Burne Hogarth, American cartoonist (b. 1911)
- 1996 – Jerry Siegel, American cartoonist (b. 1914)
- 1999 – Markey Robinson, Irish painter (b. 1918)
- 1999 – Torgny Torgnysson Segerstedt, Swedish sociologist and philosopher (b. 1908)
- 2001 – Curt Blefary, American baseball player (b. 1943)
- 2002 – Gustaaf Deloor, Belgian cyclist (b. 1913)
- 2002 – Astrid Lindgren, Swedish author (b. 1907)
- 2002 – Ayşe Nur Zarakolu, Turkish author and activist (b. 1946)
- 2003 – Mieke Pullen, Dutch long-distance runner (b. 1957)
- 2004 – Lloyd M. Bucher, U.S. Navy officer (b. 1927)
- 2004 – Don Cholito, Puerto Rican radio host (b. 1923)
- 2004 – Elroy Hirsch, American football player (b. 1923)
- 2004 – Mel Pritchard, British Musician (Barclay James Harvest) (b. 1948)
- 2004 – Don Stansauk, American professional wrestler (b. 1936)
- 2004 – Joe Viterelli, American actor (b. 1937)
- 2005 – Jim Capaldi, English singer and songwriter (Traffic) (b. 1944)
- 2005 – Karen Lancaume, French actress (b. 1973)
- 2005 – Jacques Villeret, French actor (b. 1951)
- 2005 – Ronnie Paris, child abuse victim (b. 2001)
- 2006 – Yitzchak Kaduri, rabbi
- 2006 – Henry McGee, English comedian (b. 1929)
- 2007 – Carlo Clerici, Swiss road racing cyclist (b. 1929)
- 2007 – Father Robert Drinan, Roman Catholic priest and American politician (b. 1920)
- 2007 – Yelena Romanova, Russian athlete (b. 1963)
- 2007 – Karel Svoboda, Czech composer of popular music (b. 1938)
- 2007 – Hsu Wei Lun, Taiwanese actress (b. 1978)
- 2008 – Archbishop Christodoulos of Athens and All Greece (b. 1939)
- 2008 – Ginty Vrede, Dutch kickboxer (b. 1985)
- 2009 – Billy Powell, American musician (Lynyrd Skynyrd) (b. 1952)
Can Israel take the credit?:
Israeli intelligence officials confirmed that an explosion damaged Iran’s Fordow nuclear facility, which is being used to enrich uranium, The Sunday Times reported.
According to the report, an Israeli official said the country is still in the “preliminary stages of understanding what happened and how significant it is.” The Times quoted the official as saying he did not know if the explosion was “sabotage or accident.”The Times said the official refused to comment on reports that Israeli aircraft were seen near the facility at the time of the explosion…According to the original report of the mysterious blast, penned by former Iranian Revolutionary Guard, Reza Kahlili, for the WND.com website, the explosion “destroyed much of the installation and trapped about 240 personnel deep underground.”The Jerusalem Post could not confirm the veracity of the report.
Iran denied the reports describing them as “Western propaganda”
A LABOR MP has sparked outrage by describing Australia Day as “invasion day” and accusing Australians of celebrating “by throwing bits of dead animals on a cooking fire just like the people we dispossessed”.
Victorian MP Steve Gibbons, who has previously used Twitter to label Deputy Opposition Leader Julie Bishop a “narcissistic bimbo,” Tony Abbott a “douchebag” and Kevin Rudd a “psychopath,” tweeted the remarks late on Australia Day.
This is a member of the same government with plans for the rest of us:
.... Labor’s plans to make it unlawful to offend or insult people under the proposed overhaul of discrimination law...
If Labor is serious about making it a crime to offend people, shouldn’t it start with prosecuting Gibbons? Instead:
I don’t think it showed here, but I watched the DVD last night - a gift from one of my Dutch aunts - and loved it. More importantly, so did my non-Dutch wife.
On 2GB with Steve Price from 8pm. Listen live here.
Readers have asked why the podcast for last Friday’s show has not been put up. I’ll see if I can sort it out.
The Gillard Government has all but stopped boat people from Sri Lanka by belatedly agreeing to send most arrivals right back on next plane. But for other arrivals it’s still an open door:
A RECORD number of asylum seekers have made the dangerous monsoon season crossing to Australia during January, with 425 arrivals eclipsing previous marks under the Labor government.
While the government believes its policy of turning people back to Sri Lanka has stemmed the flow of boats from there, there had been hopes a slowdown over summer was due to policy and not simply monsoonal weather conditions.
Two boats were intercepted over the weekend with the first carrying 15 people picked up north of Christmas Island and the second carrying 59 found east of Christmas Island.
(Thanks to reader Hmmm.)
POOR Tim Flannery, our chief climate commissioner, must have thought the ABC was pulling his leg.
“Many parts of Queensland are on flood alert this weekend, as torrential rain from ex-tropical cyclone Oswald drenches much of the state,” ABC radio reported on Saturday.
IF we must have an “Australian of the Year”, I guess Ita Buttrose is as good as anyone else.
Nice woman. Speaks sense. Great career in publishing. Doing fine work on dementia.
Henry Ergas says Labor went on a massive spending spree that’s destroyed its fiscal credibility:
Here is what [Julia Gillard] said in the lead-up to Australia Day last year: “… My firm conclusion is that handing down a budget surplus in May is the right call in the present economic circumstances.”Having now abandoned that commitment, the government, instead of putting any alternative in its place, has focused on finding excuses for its backflip.Spending, it claims, has been squeezed so hard you can hear the pips squeak, but slow world growth has held back revenues....That explanation doesn’t stand up to scrutiny… In 2008-09 and 2009-10, Labor massively increased government spending, taking it to a higher share of GDP than at any time since 1993-94. That surge was meant to be wound back once the economy recovered; but though growth was well above trend by 2011-12, the increase was never reversed, with new spending programs being ramped up as stimulus measures were phased out.
How dare this Government try to muzzle its own people:
FORMER High Court judge Ian Callinan has called for widespread community opposition to the federal government’s proposed changes to discrimination law, which he says are “outrageous” and a threat to community cohesion.
”Every Australian with an ideal for democracy - and I hope that means most Australians - should do everything they lawfully can to oppose the introduction of this outrageous law,” said Mr Callinan, who retired from the nation’s highest court in 2007.
But what hypocrites:
No wonder. The Gillard regime which wants to stop other people from saying stuff that “offends” or “insults” feels perfectly free to itself offend and insult in the most viciously personal way. Some examples:
Tony Abbott is a hack. A dog. An aggressive, carping, bitter, mindless, deceptive, dodgy, mendacious, rancid, negative, nasty, muck-raking, untruthful, obstructionist, opportunistic, sexist, political Neanderthal. He is unfit for high office. He cannot control his temper. No trick is too low for him. No stunt is too wild. He is a bully. A thug. A snake oil salesman. A poster child for vile bully-boy values. He has repulsive double standards. He hates women. He stands for nothing. He has unhealthy obsessions. He is nuts.
Abbott behaves like Jack the Ripper.He is Gina Rinehart’s butler.He is Nancy Reagan without the astrology. He is a douchebag.
I’m quoting here, mostly from Hansard. These are not comments from media figures, or feral demonstrators, or dredged up from 10 or even 30 years ago. These are insults delivered this year, by federal Labor MPs, directed at one person, and orchestrated by Julia Gillard. The level of personal insult has been on an industrial scale.
Hypocrites. Just hypocrites.
Question: if the Government thinks insults are so evil that they must be banned, why does it so freely use insults itself?
State Governments are in revolt against the Gillard Government’s attack on our freedoms to call someone an overbearing, hypocritical sneak with fascist leanings. Victorian Attorney-General Robert Clark:
The draft law proposes dramatically to extend the definition of discrimination to include conduct that “offends” or “insults” another person, based on 18 specified attributes including age, gender, political opinion and “social origin”.
If this becomes law, merely expressing a view that others find objectionable because they (or their friends) have such an attribute could constitute an act of “discrimination” for which the person expressing the view may be liable to pay compensation.The prohibition would not even be based on what a reasonable person might consider insulting, but on whether the person complaining felt offended or insulted....Current law regulates specific groups that might discriminate, such as providers of employment, education, goods and services, clubs, and sporting associations.
However, the draft new law covers the conduct of any person “connected with any area of public life”. This means the law will regulate the conduct of any employee of a business, any student at a school, any customer in a shop, any volunteer in a community organisation, any blogger - and so forth.
NSW Premier Barry O’Farrell is also alarmed by this draconian attack on our free speech:
Ms Roxon’s draft bill proposes to declare unlawful conduct that merely offends or insults…
”That would change fundamentally the ability for political debate in this country,” Mr O’Farrell said.
Los Angeles is being reclaimed for Latinos, in the great demographic shift that poses questions about how the multi-"racial" US maintains its culture - and peace:
The black family—a mother, three teenage children and a 10-year-old boy—moved into a little yellow home in Compton over Christmas vacation.
When a friend came to visit, four men in a black SUV pulled up and called him a “nigger,” saying black people were barred from the neighborhood, according to Los Angeles County sheriff’s deputies. They jumped out, drew a gun on him and beat him with metal pipes.It was just the beginning of what detectives said was a campaign by a Latino street gang to force an African American family to leave.The attacks on the family are the latest in a series of violent incidents in which Latino gangs targeted blacks in parts of greater Los Angeles over the last decade.Compton, with a population of about 97,000, was predominantly black for many years. It is now 65% Latino and 33% black, according to the 2010 U.S. census....Federal authorities have alleged in several indictments in the last decade that the Mexican Mafia prison gang has ordered street gangs under its control to attack African Americans. Leaders of the Azusa 13 gang were sentenced to lengthy prison terms earlier this month for leading a policy of attacking African American residents and expelling them from the town.
Similar attacks have taken place in Harbor Gateway, Highland Park, Pacoima, San Bernardino, Canoga Park and Wilmington, among other places.
Tens of thousands of mourners poured into the streets of the restive Egyptian city of Port Said on Sunday for a mass funeral for most of the 37 people killed in rioting a day earlier, chanting slogans against Islamist President Mohammed Morsi.
Violence erupted briefly when some in the crowd fired guns and police responded with volleys of tear gas, witnesses said. State television reported 110 were injured…There was also a funeral in Cairo for one of two policemen killed in the Port Said violence a day earlier. Several policemen grieving for two colleagues heckled Interior Minister Mohammed Ibrahim, who is in charge of the force, when he arrived for their funeral, according to witnesses… Ibrahim hurriedly left and the funeral proceeded without him.The violence in the city, about 140 miles northeast of Cairo, broke out on Saturday after a court on Saturday convicted and sentenced 21 defendants to death for their roles in a mass soccer riot in a Port Said stadium on Feb. 1, 2012 that left 74 people dead. Most of those sentenced to death were local soccer fans from Port Said....
The riots stemmed mostly from animosity between police and die-hard Egyptian soccer fans, known as Ultras, who have become highly politicized. The Ultras frequently confront police and were also part of the uprising that toppled Hosni Mubarak’s regime two years ago.
And now they are against Morsi...
PRESIDENT Mohamed Morsi has declared a state of emergency in three provinces hit by rioting which has left dozens dead, warning he was ready to take further steps to confront threats to Egypt’s security.
Emergency measures will come into effect in the provinces of Port Said, Suez and Ismailia “for 30 days starting at midnight” (0900 AEDT Monday), Morsi said in an address on state television on Sunday.
“We will respond to the threat of climate change, knowing that failure to do so would betray our children and future generations,” [President Barack] Obama said on Monday at the start of eight sentences on the subject, more than he devoted to any other specific area. “Some may still deny the overwhelming judgment of science, but none can avoid the devastating impact of raging fires, and crippling drought, and more powerful storms.”
It was an appeal using rhetoric and not science because the most severe impacts of these natural disasters come from the challenge of managing increased population or changed population demands, not changes in the events per se…I note three recent papers that find evidence for long-term cycles influencing the Earth’s climate.Weichao Wu of the Peking University and colleagues studied sea-surface temperature records preserved in deep-sea sediments near Okinawa in the Pacific Ocean, and found evidence for multiple cyclic temperature variations over the past 2700 years.The most interesting temperature peaks correspond to medieval, Roman and possibly Minoan warming periods of about 900, 1800 and 2500 years ago.The paper is significant in that it concludes that the current rate of global temperature change lies in the same range as that of those historical warming periods.This suggests we have evidence that challenges current climate orthodoxy on two grounds, first by suggesting that such warming events were global not local European phenomena, and second that current warming is not unprecedented in the historical record.While we read many claims by oceanographers of an increasing rate of rise in sea-levels associated with increased atmospheric carbon dioxide, an alternative interpretation of observed data is made in a recent analysis by Don Chambers of the University of South Florida and colleagues.Chambers poses the question: “Is there a 60-year oscillation in sea-level?” and shows evidence that the answer is probably yes.I read his data and find it is arguable that the upswing of that oscillation is responsible for about half of the current 3mm/year rate of rise, leaving the background rate of rise at about 1.7mm, where it has been for 110 years…I would add that if Chambers is right, the accelerating rate of increase in sea-levels has topped out about now, and the 10mm a year rises needed to reach the feared “1 metre rise by 2100” are not going to happen.A third work ... is a study by JA Abreu of the prestigious Swiss university ETH, with co-authors including Australia’s 1995 Australia Science Prize winner Ken McCracken.
Abreu reconstructs a history of solar sunspot cycles over the past 10,000 years… These records show a series of cycles ranging from 88 years to 504 years with longer cycles of 974 and 2300 years evident ...
Asten fondly dreams of politicians demanding to reach such evidence that challenges the media consensus:
It is my hope that scientists advising our politicians will include the rich literature represented here in their briefings to politicians - or alternatively, that politicians will demand it.
Not in election year, they won’t,
TWITTER sensation Commander Chris Hadfield sent us a beautiful birthday treat to mark Australia Day: an incredible set of images shot 410km above Australia.
We will be delivered from the snare of the fowler and from the perilous pestilence, because our protection is not of the world, but of the Lord (Ps 91:3)! Check out today's devotional. Be sure to click "like" to help spread the word! Thanks, all! http://bit.ly/SD5wb9
If you're in a part of Australia being bucketed down on right now, get cosy with one of these! (even if you're not in these areas, this is still probably a good idea)
Gowrie Creek just below KR Bacon Factory at it's peak on the 27th of Jan 2013. Much lower than 2011 but still a fairly raging torrent and all that water is heading out through the Murray Darling to South Australia. All of the rivers west of the Great Divide that have sene major stream rises will add an immense amount of water to this great river system and of course this is the land of droughts and flooding rains. Always has been and always will be.
The love of field and coppice
Of green and shaded lanes,
Of ordered woods and gardens
Is running in your veins.
Strong love of grey-blue distance,
Brown streams and soft, dim skies
I know, but cannot share it,
My love is otherwise.
I love a sunburnt country,
A land of sweeping plains,
Of ragged mountain ranges,
Of droughts and flooding rains.
I love her far horizons,
I love her jewel-sea,
Her beauty and her terror
The wide brown land for me!
The stark white ring-barked forests,
All tragic to the moon,
The sapphire-misted mountains,
The hot gold hush of noon,
Green tangle of the brushes
Where lithe lianas coil,
And orchids deck the tree-tops,
And ferns the warm dark soil.
Core of my heart, my country!
Her pitiless blue sky,
When, sick at heart, around us
We see the cattle die
But then the grey clouds gather,
And we can bless again
The drumming of an army,
The steady soaking rain.
Core of my heart, my country!
Land of the rainbow gold,
For flood and fire and famine
She pays us back threefold.
Over the thirsty paddocks,
Watch, after many days,
The filmy veil of greenness
That thickens as we gaze ...
An opal-hearted country,
A wilful, lavish land
All you who have not loved her,
You will not understand
though Earth holds many splendours,
Wherever I may die,
I know to what brown country
My homing thoughts will fly.
its been raining today
Beloved, God’s wisdom will give you good success. It will cause you to succeed as a student, employee, parent or spouse. And it’s not difficult at all to operate in His wisdom—all you need to do is to ask Him for it!
The Bible tells us that “if any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask of God, who gives to all liberally" (Jas 1:5). So ask, and God will bless you liberally with divine wisdom to cause everything that you touch to prosper. His wisdom always leads to promotion and good success.
There's a certain magic about Winter-
Perhaps it's the snow everywhere.
Could it be the chuckle of children
Enjoying the crisp, chilly air?
The stately pines offer a scent of mint
As sleds tumble down the valley.
Snowdrifts pile high, roads are blocked.
Yet kind folks with their shovels rally.
We mustn't forget the sparrows need a nest-
Seems each home has a birdhouse or two.
Warm chicken soup, a kettle of tea.
And a cozy fire help men muddle through.
During Winter months remain an optimist-
Watch as good times appear on the scene;
Snow balls will roll, snowflakes will fall.
The earth unfolds like an artist's dream.
Look for the wonder in Winter
And reach out, don't you shy away.
Discover the harvest that Winter bestows-
Not barren branches, but a "snow-bountiful" day.
Winter Wonders story, by © Linda Grazulis
Certainly want to work with friendly people
Bass for the Abominable Snowman
A MEDIA MALAISE Larry Pickering
Fairfax aspired to objectivity when I worked there... well, sort of, but now it is badly listing to the Left and taking on serious water.
The previous SMH article says more about Fairfax than Gillard and crystallises the financial and digital-age problems management seems incapable of even embracing.
Irrelevant Gillard-doting dolts like Carlton, Summers, Grattan, Pasco, Fitzsimons and an array of other Left wing loonies is turning readers away in droves and they still don’t get it! Or maybe they do.
Were my eyes deceiving me this morning or was Carlton joshing about another 72-all draw for this year’s election?
The previous SMH article (published in 1996 when Gillard was unknown) shows the Herald leading the way in wanting to expose the AWU fraud. Now Gillard is Prime Minister it is of no interest to them.
The soon-to-be-charged Bruce Wilson said then, and Gillard and the Left say now, “it’s old hat”. Some people have a nasty surprise coming.
The Herald article encapsulates the extent to which the Left has now infiltrated Fairfax. And do you think they jump up and down about the share price? Of course not, they are more concerned that Gina might curb their daily drivel.
With Fairfax's market capitalisation now below $1 billion, it posted a $2.7bn statutory net loss last August after a write-down on the value of its mastheads of $2.8bn. Its share price is reeling below the cost of its papers.
Some of its decisions lately, particularly regarding radio, are inane and appear to have had political motivation. Rinehart is merely taunting them like a cat playing with a mouse before it kills it.
As with all aggressive Left wing rags, the SMH will slowly sink into the sunset and their journos will slither off to become ALP media advisors or something, and that’s a shame.
How did Fairfax reach such a parlous state? Because it allowed journalism to infiltrate management where, logically, journalism should have no place any more than a spray painter should have a place the board of GM-H.
The board is obsessed with its cornerstone covenant of “Journalistic Independence” (lunatic scribes must be allowed to continue to run the asylum) and it sees the pragmatic Rinehart and Singleton as enemies, not saviours.
So, shareholders run a long last, and it shows. In the real world that system is not commercially viable.
As surely as a paedophile gravitates to the priesthood and Scouts, the Left will gravitate to the media and in doing so it degrades the institution.
The US mainstream media has suffered similar infiltration from the Left with a lone Fox News defending against the onslaught.
Unfortunately Fox News is equally biased to the Right and that’s not good either because it serves to further galvanise the Left, leaving Fox pointlessly preaching only to the already converted.
Once upon a time you kept your voting intentions to yourself, it was a private matter. But the current polarisation caused by bad politicians and overt media bias has left no secret as to how your dinner guests vote.
The Sydney Morning Herald, The Age, The Canberra Times and others in the stable all now share the same news and were once influential, not any more.
Even the reasonable Financial Review is underperforming as readers turn to the net.
Physical hard copy news is finished. The future of news provision and dissemination is on-line and if executives believe readers will pay for their “quality journalism” then they are playing with their dongers.
Cut and paste any Australian headline into Google and you are presented for free with what they expected you would pay for. That shows how far out of touch they really are.
Something must give. Fairfax must be broken up to allow its few genuine earners to survive and one of those few genuine earners is an on-line dating site, RSVP for Christ’s sake.
Mmmm, oh well, back to the drawing board.
Apologies Janet we missed your thoughts last night. Well written too
I have long had a 'healthy' cynicism of both sides of politics and in previous Federal Elections would often vote independent or minor party. Having said that, I also recognise that someone needs to govern the country and our system and processes have up till now served Australia well. Decisions need to be made that some will applaud and some will condemn, but I never doubted that overall our representatives were doing what they thought would be best in the long run, and our system was robust and healty enough to weed out those who put their interests ahead of that of the country. There was also the confidence that we had a robust
media who would keep politicans honest and hold them to account.
Under this Government, I don't believe in our system or our media anymore.
Never in my adult voting life have I ever felt so strongly that our system is being corrupted, aided by a compliant media, and, as a woman myself, I am deeply saddened that this has happened under our first female Prime Minister.
I have been appalled at the happenings in the House of Representatives; accusations of misogyny, Peter Slipper, Craig Thompson, the Carbon Tax lie, the AWU scandal, just to mention a few. To me these events (among others) have really tarnished our Parliament and I cringe wondering how the rest of the world perceives Australians through the lens of this current Government.
Even worse is our media (with a few exceptions) allowing this to happen without calling those responsible to account.
I remember a statement that someone once told me: 'A persons perception is their reality'. Your perception may or may not be correct, but it does form the framework of your reality. At the moment my perception, and consequently my reality (until proven otherwise) is that this Government is treating the Australian population with contempt, has leaders that need to answer some serious questions regarding their integrity, and as far as I am concerned is technically illegitimate as it only gained power on the basis of the Carbon Tax lie.
FEDERAL ELECTION NOW!!
As Tony Abbott previously said, 'this is not about gender, it's about character', and I agree with him that the Prime Minister has dismally failed the character test.
"Your hands shaped me and made me" (Job 10:8).
We are all unique and different in the way that God created us. We each have our own shape.
S- piritual gifts
We are all shaped to serve one God. Our shape is what makes us who we are.
Source: The Purpose Driven Life
Don’t focus on your lack. Focus on God’s abundant supply (Phil 4:19), and expect to experience it.
" There are those that say the Holocaust never happened, whilst panning a sequel to the original .
We must fight the forces of darkness ,and expose them to the light of facts and evidence , even when the last survivor (of the Shoah) is no longer with us " : David Green.https://www.facebook.com/
A prayer from women's concentration camp Ravensbrueck.
Since 1938 the SS deported numerous female prisoners to Ravensbrueck in Mecklenburg, Germany, where they were forced to work for the weaponry of the Nazis. Between 1938 and 1945 132000 women and children had been registered in Ravensbrueck.
I continue my series "Stop War" with an experimental track about a prayer which has been passed on from there.
Music, Vocals, Instruments, Production: Andreas Herrmann (dirigent)
Artwork: Maria Hiszpanska (who had been a prisoner in Ravensbrueck)
Thanks to David Daniel Ball (ddball) for providing an English translation (see the "Lyrics" below). It's highly recommended to read the lyrics while listening ...
Wikepedia about the Life in the camp:
When a new prisoner arrived at Ravensbrueck they were required to wear a color-coded triangle (a Winkel) that identified them by category, with a letter sewn within the triangle indicating the prisoner's nationality. Polish women wore a red triangle, red denoting a political prisoner, with a letter "P". By 1942, Polish women became the largest national component at the camp. Jewish women wore yellow triangles, but sometimes, unlike the other prisoners, they wore a second triangle for the other categories or for "race defilement". Some transports had their hair shaved, such as from Czechoslovakia and Poland, but "Aryan" transports did not. For instance, in 1943 a group of Norwegian women came to the camp. (Norwegians/Scandinavians were ranked by the Nazis as the purest of all Aryans.) None had their hair shaved. Between 1942 and 1943 almost all Jewish women from the Ravensbrück camp were sent to Auschwitz in several transports following Nazi policy to make Germany "Judenrein" (cleansed of Jews). Common criminals wore green triangles, Soviet prisoners of war, German and Austrian Communists had red triangles and members of the Jehovah's Witnesses were labeled with lavender triangles. Classified separately with black triangles were prostitutes, Gypsies, lesbians, or women who refused to marry.
Based on the Nazis incomplete transport list "Zugangsliste" consisting 25,028 names of women sent by Nazis to the camp, it is estimated that inmates of Ravensbrück ethnic structure was the following: Poles 24.9%, Germans 19.9%, Jews 15.1%, Russians 15.0%, French 7.3%, Gypsies 5.4%, other 12.4%. Gestapo categorized the inmates as follows: political 83.54%, anti-social 12.35%, criminal 2.02%, Jehovah Witnesses 1.11%, racial defilement 0.78%, other 0.20%. The list is one of the most important documents, preserved in the last moments of the camp operation by courageous members of the Polish underground girl guides unit "Mury" (The Walls). The rest of the camp documents were burned by escaping SS overseers in pits or in the crematorium.
One of the forms of the resistance were underground education programs organized by prisoners for their fellow inmates. All national groups had some sort of program. The most extensive were among Polish women where various high school level classes were taught by experienced teachers.
Inmates at Ravensbrueck suffered greatly. Living in subhuman conditions, thousands were shot, strangled, gassed, buried alive, or worked to death. Periodically, the SS authorities subjected prisoners in the camp to "selections" in which the Germans isolated those prisoners considered too weak or injured to work and killed them. At first, "selected" prisoners were shot. Beginning in 1942, they were transferred to "euthanasia" killing centers or to the Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp. The SS staff also murdered some prisoners in the camp infirmary by lethal injection.
Starting in the summer of 1942, medical experiments were conducted without consent on 86 women; 74 of them were Polish inmates. There were two types of the experiments done on the Polish political prisoners. The first type tested the efficacy of sulfonamide drugs. These experiments involved deliberate cutting into and infecting leg bones and muscles with virulent bacteria, cutting nerves, introducing substances like pieces of wood or glass into tissues, and fracturing bones. The second set of experiments studied bone, muscle and nerve regeneration, and the possibility of transplanting bones from one person to another. Out of the 74 Polish victims, called Króliki, Kaninchen, Lapins or Rabbits by the experimenters, five died as a result of the experiments, six with unhealed wounds were executed and the rest survived, with permanent physical damage, due to the help of other inmates in the camp. Four of them -- Jadwiga Dzido, Maria Broel-Plater, Władysława Karolewska and Maria Kuśmierczuk -- testified against Nazi doctors at the Doctors' Trial in 1946.
Between 120 and 140 Gypsy women were sterilized in the camp in January 1945. All of them, unaware of the consequences, signed the consent form after being told by the camp overseers that the German authorities would release them if they agreed to sterilization.
All inmates were required to do heavy labor, ranging from heavy outdoor jobs to building the V-2 rocket parts for the giant German company, Siemens AG. The SS also built several factories near Ravensbrück for the production of textiles and electrical components.
The bodies of those killed in the camp were cremated in the nearby Fuerstenberg crematorium until 1943. In that year, SS authorities constructed a crematorium at a site near the camp prison. In the autumn of 1944, the SS constructed a gas chamber near the crematorium. The Germans gassed several thousand prisoners at Ravensbrueck before the camp's liberation in April 1945.
Friede den Menschen, die bösen Willens sind,
und ein Ende aller Rache
und allen Reden über Strafe und Züchtigung.
Die Grausamkeiten spotten allem je Dagewesenen,
sie überschreiten die Grenzen menschlichen Begreifens,
und zahlreich sind die Märtyrer.
Daher, o Gott,
wäge nicht ihre Leiden auf den Schalen
fordre nicht grausame Abrechnung,
sondern schlage sie anders zu Buche:
Lass sie zugute kommen allen Henkern,
Verrätern und Spionen
und allen schlechten Menschen,
und vergib ihnen
um des Mutes und der Seelenkraft des andern willen.
All das Gute sollte zählen, nicht das Böse.
Und in der Erinnerung unsrer Feinde
sollten wir nicht als ihre Opfer weiterleben,
nicht als ihr Alptraum und grässliche Gespenster,
vielmehr ihnen zu Hilfe kommen,
damit sie abstehen mögen von ihrem Wahn.
Nur dies allein wird ihnen abgefordert,
und dass wir, wenn alles vorbei sein wird,
leben dürfen als Menschen unter Menschen,
und dass wieder Friede sein möge auf dieser armen Erde
den Menschen die guten Willens sind,
und dass dieser Friede auch zu den andern komme.
English Translation by ddball:
Peace to all those who are full of evil intent
and an end to taking revenge
and an end to speeches about punishment and scolding.
The matchless cruelties defy description,
they exceed anything that may be learned,
and the martyrs are numerous.
Henceforth, o God,
don't weigh their sufferings on the scales
of your justice,
Don't ask for cruel reckoning,
but weigh it in a different way:
Let the hangmen,
traitors and spies,
and all evil peoples benefit from their crime,
and forgive them
for the sake of courage and the sacrifice of the others.
All good shall be reckoned, but evil spilt and lost.
And in the remembrance of our enemies
we shall not live as their victims,
not as their nightmares and terrible monsters,
but rather come to their rescue,
that they abstain from their delusion.
Only this will be claimed from them,
and that we, when all this will be over,
may live as humans among humans,
and that peace may again reign on this poor earth
for all with good in their heart
and that this peace shall extend to the lost ones, too.